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ECONOMIC STATISTICS PROGRAMME IN INDIA by S.K.Nath, INDIA. MAIN PROGRAMMES ON ECONOMIC STATISTICS. Annual Surveys of Industries (ASI) Economic Census Country-wide Large Scale Sample Surveys Census of Registered Small Scale Industries. CHALLENGES.
  • Annual Surveys of Industries (ASI)
  • Economic Census
  • Country-wide Large Scale Sample Surveys
  • Census of Registered Small Scale Industries
  • Under Economic Statistics there is no Statistical Act for data collection, except for ASI
  • There are more than 42 million establishments / enterprises in the country. This excludes activities relating to crop plantation and production
  • There are more than 211 million households
  • There are 17 National Languages
  • Data are collected through physical visits
  • Schedules require interview for 2 hours
  • Annual Survey of Industries(Manufacturing/Repair Sector)General InformationData Collected under “Collection of Statistics Act, 1953ASI extends to the entire country except three States and one Union TerritoryNational Industrial Classification (based on ISIC ) is followed.ASICC (ASI Commodity Classification) is followed for input-output data collectionList frame followed for ASIMicro data available on public domainObjective
  • Estimation of the contribution of manufacturing industries as a whole and of different industry groups to national income
  • Systematic study of the structure of industry as a whole and of each type of industry
  • Analysis of various factors influencing industry in the country and
  • Providing a comprehensive, factual and systematic basis for formulation of policies.
  • Industries Covered
  • Factories and industrial units registered under Sections 2m (i) & (ii) of the Factories Act, 1948 employing 10 or more workers using power or employing 20 or more workers without power
  • Bidi and cigar manufacturing establishmentsregistered under the Bidi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966 and employing 10 or more workers using power or employing 20 or more workers
  • List frame is maintained and updated annually
  • Unit of EnumerationThe primary unit of enumeration in the survey is:
  • a factory in the case of manufacturing industries
  • an establishment in the case of bidi and cigar industries
  • a workshop in the case of repair services and
  • an undertaking or a licensee in the case of electricity, gas and water supply undertakings
  • Sampling Design
  • Frame of units for each Industry Group at 4 digit level of National Industrial Classification (NIC) is stratified by States at first stage and put in descending order of number of workers;
  • Units with 100 or more workers are separated as census sector units;
  • All units are selected if number of units within each group is less than six;
  • If stratum size is =<6, then complete enumeration is done
  • If stratum size > 6, 20% sample is selected subject to a minimum of 6, with half in each of the 2 sub-samples;
  • Data Collection Strategy
  • List frame
  • As per law, Annual General Meeting of a company should be held by September
  • Data collected from such “Administrative documents” by regular enumerators located though out the country
  • Joint return is received from some enterprises
  • Management units are contacted when local units do not have balance sheets
  • Type of Organisation /Ownership
  • Assets and Liabilities
  • Employment and Labour Cost
  • Receipts
  • Expenses
  • Input items (Indigenous)
  • Input Items ( Imported)
  • Products and by-products
  • Distributive Expenses
  • Electricity generated / purchased /consumed / sold
  • Exports (*)
  • Pollution Control – Degree / P & M for abatement (*)
  • ECONOMIC CENSUSOf INDIAChallenges for Data Collection
  • Indian economic census is the largest enumeration exercise in terms of
  • Technological intricacies
  • Volume of work
  • Involvement of huge manpower
  • Imparting training to large number of field personnel
  • Monitoring and coordination of pre-census, census period and post census operations
  • Scope and coverage
  • Al the States/UTs
  • All economic activities except those involved in crop production and plantation
  • New features of last Economic Census-2005
  • Canvassing of a separate “Address Slip”
  • Use of Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) technology for scanning and data processing
  • Schedules
  • (i) House List,
  • (ii) Enterprise/Establishment Schedule
  • (iii) Abstracts- for Rural and Urban
  • (iv)Address Slip
  • House List : To list all the households and identify the enterprises in these households or any member has enterprise outside the household without fixed location.
  • Enterprise Schedule : Detailed information on various characteristics relating to the enterprises viz. number of workers, social group of owner, registration code etc., for all the enterprises listed in the HL form is to be collected here.
  • NOTE: House listing and filling up Enterprise schedule done simultaneously.House ListRURAL - IDURBAN IDData Collection Strategy: RURAL
  • In Rural areas, all the census villages within the geographical boundary of the country will be covered
  • One enumerator is allotted the work of 1 to 3 Enumeration Blocks consisting of about 200-230 households. In hilly/terrain areas EB consists of 120 to 150 households
  • Data Collection Strategy: URBAN
  • In Urban areas, all the cities/towns within the geographical boundary of the country will be covered with the help of Urban Frame Survey (UFS) Blocks prepared by NSSO of the Ministry of Statistics & PI.
  • For identification of UFS blocks, the following materials was made available to all enumerators:
  • maps for each Investigator unit (IV unit)
  • boundary details of each block within an investigator unit
  • Establishment/Enterprise ScheduleInformation Collected
  • Location- fixed / mobile –within hh or outside
  • Number of workers ( hired / non-hired) according to sex
  • Economic Activities confirming to ISIC-4 digit
  • Social group of owner,
  • Registration code
  • Major activity and Subsidiary activity
  • Ownership of enterprise
  • Sources of outstanding loans
  • ABSTRACT FOR QUICK DATA RELEASEAbstract : To be filled for each enumeration unit by the enumerator by transferring entries from ‘Total’ row of the ABSTRACT form.POST ENUMERATION CHECKS
  • In order to assess the quality of data collected, post enumeration checks was conducted by in all the States/UTs after completion of the fieldwork of the Economic Census,2005
  • Two villages and two urban blocks were selected at random from each of about 600 districts throughout the country
  • PEC was done by trained investigators of the Ministry of Statistics & PI (NSSO) who was not involved in the fieldwork of the census
  • Intelligence Character Recognition (ICR) technology or Automated Forms Processing is used for processing the data
  • The technology enables the user to process documents from their images of the filled-in schedules and convert them into database
  • This permits permanent storage of copy of the original schedules in electronic form.
  • LAN SETUP - DATA CENTREsControllerstationScanning stationExport station Supervisor Export completed batches as ASCII file for further processing Supervisor Monitor the workflow & Balance the load at different stages of operationForms are fed thru SCANNER(S) batch by batchSupervisors Handle Exceptional cases referred by OperatorsForm IMAGES stored in Network DISKRecognition stationsServerException stationsTile/Correction station - Un-recognised Characters are corrected by OPERATORSField by field character images are automaticallyRECOGNISEDTiling & Completion stationsTILING STATIONTILING STATIONCOMPLETION STATION [Field mode ]Form ImageEnterprise AbstractEnterprise ScheduleHouselist Extracted dataLARGE SCALE SAMPLE SURVEYS Basic Information
  • Large scale Socio-economic sample surveys are conducted by National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) on regular basis. Have 5000 regular staff
  • Topic of Surveys: Consumer Expenditure/ Labour Force – on regular basis, other subjects are taken up according to 5/10 year cycle or on priority basis
  • Coverage: Entire country
  • Survey round: One year for Economic Surveys: Jul-Jun
  • Frame: Area Frame based on Economic Census used for Enterprise Surveys
  • Sampling DesignData Collection Strategy
  • Two Stage Stratified Sampling
  • FSU’s are Villages / Urban blocks
  • Listing of HHS or Establishments done for each selected FSUs and further stratified according to sampling strategy varies from survey to survey
  • SSUs ( HHs / Establishments) are chosen based on Circular Systematic Sampling.
  • Each investigator visits the selected SSUs and fills up paper schedule running into 8-10 pages
  • Depending on surveys, multiple activity-wise data are collected
  • Type of Organisation /Ownership
  • Assets and Liabilities
  • Employment and Labour Cost
  • Receipts
  • Expenses
  • Input items
  • Products and by-products
  • Distributive Expenses
  • Recent Surveys taken up
  • R63- Jul 06-Jun 07: Service Sector (excl-Trade)
  • R62- Jul05-Jun 06: Unorganised Manufacturing
  • R57-Jul 01-Jun 02: Unorganised Services (excl- Trade & Finance)
  • R56-Jul 00-Jun01: Unorganised Manufacturing
  • R55-Jul 99-Jun 00: Informal Sector Enterprise
  • (excluding Agriculture)
  • X Aug98-Jun 99: Special Enterprise Survey
  • R53-Jul 97-Dec 96 : Trading (NDTE, OATE)
  • R51-Jul 94-Jun95 : Unorganised Manufacturing
  • SSI – Small Scale Industrial undertakings having investment in fixed Assets in Plant and Machinery, whether held on ownership terms or on lease or by hire-purchase does not exceed Rs. 10 million ( ~ $ 2,487,562)
  • SSSBE – Small Scale Service and Business (industry related) with investment in fixed assets, excluding land and building, upto Rs. 1 million.
  • Registration: Not Compulsory
  • Survey Design
  • Coverage: Entire Country
  • Census of all registered units ( about 2.3 million)
  • Sample Survey of 19278 villages / urban blocks to net unregistered sector
  • Design: Two stage Sampling based on EC frame, FSUs having more than 200 units chosen with prob=1 and rest based on PPS.
  • At SSU – 20 units for FSU selected with prob=1 and 10 units from rest FSUs.
  • Method: Mostly Interview
  • Type of Organisation /Ownership
  • Management by sex
  • Assets and Net-worth
  • Plant Machinery-original value
  • Employment
  • Gross output
  • Description of Products and by-products
  • Exports
  • Seasonality in operation
  • Use of computer
  • Reasons for sickness, if any
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